PPACTE: Pricing Policies and Control of Tobacco in Europe

PPACTE: Pricing Policies and Control of Tobacco in Europe(PPACTE) is a 3-year collaborative research project financed by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7).

The main aim of the PPACTE project is to make evidence-based policy recommendations to improve market regulation of tobacco products, for more effective, equitable control of tobacco in Europe. In particular, the project aimed to address the following questions:
1) What is the effectiveness of pricing policies across Europe?
2) What is the effect on tobacco use, cessation, and relapse behaviour?
3) How do they relate to social and health inequalities, other smoking restriction policies, the emergence of grey/illegal markets, and substitution estrategies?
To achieve these aims, the PPACTE consortium undertook several studies with different methods to provide insight into the challenge of designing a tobacco tax policy within the complex policy environment of the European Union.

The EU’s FP7 structure appointed TFRI to bring together a multidisciplinary team with some of the best health economists, epidemiologists, public health specialists and tobacco control policy experts to work on this project. The partners were: Tobacco Free Research Institute Ireland (TFRI) (Coordinator), International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) France, The National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) Finland, Istituto di Reserche Farmacologiche Mario Negri (IRFMN) Italy, International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) France, Universite of Bath UK, ICO Spain and HBSA USA.

Funding Body
EC 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7-HEALTH-2007-B)

Length of the Project

Principal Investigator
Prof. Luke Clancy (TobaccoFree Research Institute Ireland, TFRI)


Main results


  1. Fernández E, Lugo A, Clancy L, Matsuo K, La Vecchia C, Gallus S. Smoking dependence in 18 European countries: Hard to maintain the hardening hypothesis. Prev Med. 2015 Dec;81:314-9.
  2. Ferketich AK, Lugo A, La Vecchia C, Fernandez E, Boffetta P, Clancy L, Gallus  S. Relation between national-level tobacco control policies and individual-level voluntary home smoking bans in Europe. Tob Control. 2016 Jan;25(1):60-5. PMID: 25335901.
  3. Gallus S, Lugo A, Fernandez E, Gilmore AB, Leon ME, Clancy L, La Vecchia C. Support for a tobacco endgame strategy in 18 European countries. Prev Med. 2014 Oct;67:255-8. PubMed
  4. Gallus S, Lugo A, Ghislandi S, La Vecchia C, Gilmore AB. Roll-your-own cigarettes in Europe: use, weight and implications for fiscal policies. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2014 May;23(3):186-92.
  5. Gallus S, Lugo A, La Vecchia C, Boffetta P, Chaloupka FJ, Colombo P, Currie L, Fernandez E, Fischbacher C, Gilmore A, Godfrey F, Joossens L, Leon ME, Levy DT, Nguyen L, Rosenqvist G, Ross H, Townsend J, Clancy L. Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project: cross-national comparison of smoking prevalence in 18 European countries. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2014 May;23(3):177-85.
  6. Gilmore AB, Rowell A, Gallus S, Lugo A, Joossens L, Sims M. Towards a greater  understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded ‘Project Star’ report. Tob Control. 2014 May;23(e1):e51-61.
  7. Joossens L, Lugo A, La Vecchia C, Gilmore AB, Clancy L, Gallus S. Illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries: a cross-sectional survey. Tob Control. 2014 May;23(e1):e17-23.

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